1. Scale/Mass/Extension– The effect of increasing or decreasing size, growth,
stretching; making use of cropping, placing elements to suggest change.
2. Number/Frequency/Density– The sense of being crowded, a heaviness; to the opposite sensation of weightlessness, openness, using varying thickness of marks, spacing between them, and number.
3. Positive/Negative- Marks can suggest black figure on white ground, white figure on black ground, or ambiguous figure/ground
4. Orientation/Direction- Marks that indicate movement through directional
changes, rotating, reversing, reflecting
5. Alternation- Comparisons using at least two images using repetition to create different variables
6. Sequence –The following of one thing after another in chronological, causal, or logical order; succession or continuity.
7. Pattern- Occurs when an element or a combination of elements, are repeated in a recognizable system of organization such as (but not limited to) a grid.
8. Rhythm- The effect of an underlying repetitive structure or the periodic
occurrence of elements either with regular or irregular spacing.
9. Repetition- Elements recurring in a composition.
10. Proportion-The relative comparison in dimension between two or more
elements in a design; quantity of emphasis or ratio between two or more aspects of a work.
11. Axis- An implied line which runs through a work, usually the center, to which other elements in the work refer; an implied division of space producing balance and movement of pictorial elements.
12. Focal point- A center of activity, attraction or attention; a point of concentration on a picture plane.
13. Contrast-(synonym: conflict, opposition, tension) – Occurs when there is a visual difference between things or qualities being compared; degrees of dynamic imbalance between elements of a composition which draw the eye and demand resolution (dominance) to establish unity and overall balance in the design as a whole.
14. Balance –A state in which two opposing forces or factors are of equal strength or importance so that they effectively cancel each other out and stability is maintained. A state in which various elements form a satisfying and harmonious whole and nothing is out of proportion or unduly emphasized at the expense of the rest.
15. Dominance- Occurs when certain elements have a greater visual strength thanothers in a composition. (Synonym: dominant, preponderant, greater proportion or ratio, outweighing). As a design principle, dominance resolves contrast or tension and integrates a work into a unified whole.
16. Symmetry-The use of identical or similar compositional elements or units on either side of a vertical axis, mirror image. Bilateral symmetry: if the mirror imaging is done to both the vertical and horizontal axis. A highly static, centralized compositional effect is created.